Learning is much more efficient if you can avoid mistakes.
When applied to house training your puppy or even an older dog, drawing very clear distinctions is important. We know that peeing and pooping are necessary vital functions and to reprimand a dog for doing that is simply inhumane. The old fashioned ways are simply unacceptable. In addition to being unnecessarily cruel they also can produce fallout behaviors. The dog or puppy might learn not to pee when you are close by. Then people wonder why they find “secret” pee spots behind the couch or poop behind the potted plant. Clearly the reprimanded dog realizes that when you are not there he can pee and poop in peace and nothing bad happens. When the human finds the dried up poop days later and leads the dog to it and screams “NO!” I am not really sure what the dog is supposed to learn other than that the owner has temper tantrums.
So the question really is: how do I show the dog where to eliminate?
The key to housetraining is to teach the dog where to go and reward the dog for performing there! In order to accomplish this it is important to manipulate the environment in such a way that the dog practically only has the opportunity to eliminate where it is appropriate.
That means: Do not let your puppy roam the entire house but keep him close, possibly tethered to you as you walk around the house. If that is impractical: keep the dog in a small containment area like a crate. Dogs naturally do not like to pee or poop where they sleep, so if the area is small enough they will keep that small area clean. I am purposely not using the word crate too much because so many people find crates aversive and prefer not to use them. Granted there are many reasons why acclimating a dog to a crate is practical or necessary for certain dogs, but not all dogs need to be crated. There are other options such as gating and tethering, for example.
The other important idea is to take the puppy outside to the same spot often but not to stay out there for hours. I cannot tell you how often I hear: “I was out there for 2 hours…nothing! But as soon as we came home he peed on the floor.” Make the trip to pee/poop short: 10-15 minutes tops. If the pup does not perform within that timeframe, go back inside and contain him/supervise/tether him and try again.
At some point the puppy will decide to pee or poop in the destination spot because it is quite obvious that he does not have any other opportunity. When that happens is when you celebrate him like crazy! Wait until he is done and then shower him with a bunch of treats, lots of praise and maybe a short game with a special toy. That way it will become very obvious to the puppy where you’d like him to “go”.
If the dog has peed and pooped then you can take him for a walk, stroll or romp. This will pay off greatly in bad weather conditions because your dog will learn that the first thing to think about when going outside is “bathroom” and he will perform quickly so you can go inside again to seek shelter from the inclement weather.
Also do make sure you don’t give your puppy access to water all the time! Many puppies will run and play, then drink and then pee out of excitement. Be mindful that your pup’s bladder control is not yet fully developed. If he has an accident, ignore and clean it up. Or better: think ahead! When you see your puppy lapping up water get ready to take him out.
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